Towards Probing the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background in All Flavors

Anna M. Suliga, John F. Beacom, Irene Tamborra.


Fully understanding the average core-collapse supernova requires detecting the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) in all flavors. While the DSNB \bar{\nu}_e flux is near detection, and the DSNB \nu_e flux has a good upper limit and promising prospects for improved sensitivity, the DSNB \nu_x (each of \nu_\mu, \nu_\tau, \bar{\nu}_\mu, \bar{\nu}_\tau) flux has a poor limit and heretofore had no clear path for improved sensitivity. We show that a succession of xenon-based dark matter detectors — XENON1T (completed), XENONnT (under construction), and DARWIN (proposed) — can dramatically improve sensitivity to DSNB \nu_x the neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering channel. XENON1T could match the present sensitivity of \sim 10^3 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1} per \nu_x flavor, XENONnT would have linear improvement of sensitivity with exposure, and a long run of DARWIN could reach a flux sensitivity of \sim 10 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}. Together, these would also contribute to greatly improve bounds on non-standard scenarios. Ultimately, to reach the standard flux range of \sim 1 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}, even larger exposures will be needed, which we show may be possible with the series of proposed lead-based RES-NOVA detectors.

Associated Fellows